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Conflict Technology as a Catalyst of State Formation: Urban Fortifications in Medieval and Early Modern Europe

The rise of the modern European state coincided with the arrival of a new tech- nology, artillery, that rendered previous urban fortifications obsolete. We examine the role that this shift in offensive-defensive technological capabilities played in …

Escape from Tariffs: The Political Economies of Protection and Classification

Firms avoid paying the costs of protection in many ways -- their actions lobbying against tariffs or relocating production are well known. What is the political economy of protection between opportunities to change the tariff schedule? This paper …

Generalized Sanctions Threats: Evidence from the Generalized System of Preferences

Individual states are threatened with sanctions only after they have chosen to violate international norms. Therefore, empirical analyses of threats to impose sanctions on specific states are subject to a strategic selection effect. Before any …

The Limits of Resolve in International Politics: Evidence from the Iran Deal Negotiation

Trade conditionality as an instrument of economic coercion depends on the credibility of threats to revoke market access from target states that do not fulfill the conditionality. But it is equally important to credibly promise that sanctions will …

Why Populists Neglect Automation: The Political Economy of Economic Dislocation

If globalization caused enough economic dislocation to attract the ire of elected officials and voters, then why didn't the rise of automation also induce similar changes? If globalization induced such intense anxiety among voters, why did they …